Issue Vol. 2, No. 2 / October 2006

Core Concepts and Organizing Principles of Chinese Communication and Identity
Author(s): Ge Gao
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Much of the current research in Chinese communication has focused on identification, description,and theorizing of its key characteristics. Few studies, however, have delved into the central cultural constructs from the perspectives of its participants. This paper attempts to explore the meanings that are attached to mian zi, lian, han xu, zi ji ren, wai ren, and ke qi, the contexts of their uses, and the enactment of these concepts in understanding the self, relating to others, and solving problems in the Chinese culture. The paper will reveal how cultural participants make sense of those central cultural constructs and their perceptions of appropriateness in the communication process. It will integrate and address research findings in the current literature.
Through the Lenses of Organizational Culture: A Comparison of State-owned Enterprises and Joint Ventures in China
Author(s): Shuang Liu, Guo-Ming Chen, and Quan Liu
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This study compared state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and joint ventures (JVs) in light of organizational culture practices. Data were obtained via a survey participated by 781 respondents from five enterprises. Factoring identified four cultural dimensions: Participation, Teamwork, Supervision, and Meetings. All four dimensions, except Participation, were rated significantly higher by respondents from SOEs as compared to the ratings in JVs. Based on the findings, this study concluded that culture practices valued in one type of enterprise might be liability in another. The implication for management is to gear culture practices to the characteristics of the organization to make it successful.
Involvement Strategies in Hong Kong Print Advertisements, 1950s and 1980s
Author(s): Doreen D. Wu and Ellen M. K. Chung
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This study analyzed how Chinese national newspaper, the People's Daily, framed AIDS from 1985 through 2003. Examining the coverage of AIDS by the Chinese government's most important newspaper revealed the media agenda of AIDS in China and the government's attitude and political agenda towards AIDS. A total of 976 articles published over this nineteen-year period was analyzed using a computer assisted content analysis program (tf.idf) to identify the key words in each article. Key words were then used to identify the framing of each article. The findings demonstrated that increased attention had been paid by Chinese government to AIDS. Meanwhile, 1995, 2001, and 2003 marked the government's AIDS policy change, which was reflected in the coverage of the People's Daily. The population groups most associated with AIDS were children and women. Prevention and medical were the main frames for AIDS. Social and political aspects of the pandemic had gained attention in the late 1990s and early years of 2000.
Cultural Symbols or Taboos: The Cultural Conflicts Reflected in the Cultural Image in International Advertising
Author(s): Guang Han and Jingxin Liu
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International advertising is developing rapidly in China and Chinese cultural images are inescapable for effective appeals. However, in the last few years several cases of foreign advertising encountered severe criticisms, or even protests from the Chinese audience. The unexpected responses may have resulted from the advertisers' neglect of the Chinese stereotype values embedded in the traditional cultural images, as these advertisements were suspicious of insulting Chinese for the careless or wrong use of the images of \"dragon\" and \"stone lion\" regarded traditionally as the symbols of the Chinese. By analyzing these advertisements with reference to the responses from the Chinese audience as well as the comments from some scholars, this paper is intended to demonstrate that cultural values are the underlying sources of appeals for international advertisements and cultural awareness is important in avoiding cultural conflicts as such reflected in the national cultural images in international advertising.
Theoretical Studies of Advertising in Modern China: the History and the Actuality
Author(s): Xiaoyun Hu
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Based on the study of relevant literature, the author's research on related academic activities and the achievements of previous researchers, this thesis suggests that the history of theoretical studies into advertising in modern China should be divided into these three stages: 1979-1989 -- the emergence and foundation stage; 1990- 1999 -- the introduction and communication stage; 2000-2003 -- the integration and transcendence stage. In conclusion, the author thinks that there are certain profound perplexities in the theoretical studies of modern China's advertising, and proposes that Chinese advertising researchers should make more efforts to enhance the development of theoretic studies of advertising in China.
Uses and Gratifications of Chinese Online Gamers
Author(s): Tao Sun, Bu Zhong, and Jun Zhang
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Based on a nationwide sample (n=2,379), this study took a uses and gratifications approach to examining online game users in China. Role plays was found to be the dominant genre used by both male and female online gamers. Relieving and relaxing was reported as the most important need gained by online gamers. Personal income was not found to be related to uses and gratifications, although education and age were. Age was found to be positively correlated to the usage of action/shooting and impromptu strategy. Future research implications were discussed as well.
Cultural Values, Communication Styles, and Use of Mobile Communication in China
Author(s): Yun Xia
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The study explores the use of mobile phone in Chinese culture that is under-represented in the literature. The findings indicate that four dimensions of Chinese cultural values and communication styles (collectivism, personal relationships, high power distance, and high context communication) affect Chinese use of mobile phone. The study also uncovers five distinctive uses of mobile phone in China: display, safety/security, public use, micro-coordination, hyper-coordination, and comfort with technology. Mobile phone as a communication technology fits into a culture rather than imposes on a culture. The fit emphasizes on people's active role in negotiation and renegotiation of a communication technology's use.
The Chinese and US News Coverage of Terrorism Abroad: Presentation of Four Terrorist Events Abroad in Four Newspapers
Author(s): Yonghua Zhang, Pamela J. Shoemaker, Haifang Zheng, Jiang Jiang, and Yuqian Yin
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This study explores US and Chinese news coverage of four terrorist events that occurred in Spain and Russia between 2004 and 2005. These are the March 2004 bombing of a Madrid railroad station and the February 2005 car bombing near Madrid's convention center in Spain; the August 2004 bombing of two Russian airplanes shortly after leaving Moscow and the September 2004 attack on a southern Russian secondary school. They all resulted in many deaths or injuries. Four newspapers, The New York Times and The Washington Post in the United States, and People's Daily and Southern Urban Daily in China, are selected. Adopting the method of content analysis, this study compares the coverage between the US and Chinese newspapers in 14 days following each event in terms of the quantity of coverage, the placement of the coverage, the type of news items, and the focus of story. This study shows that all these events, with the exception of the Spain car bombing event, which was minor compared with the other ones, received considerable coverage in both the US and Chinese newspapers.
College Students' Perception of the Absolute Media Credibility, about SARS-Related News during the SARS Outbreak in Taiwan
Author(s): Hung-Yi Lu and James E. Andrews
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The objective of this study was to explore college students' perception of the absolute media credibility about SARS-related news during the 2003 SARS outbreak in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using cluster sampling of students (N=836) from four colleges in southern Taiwan between May 25 and June 20, 2003. Among the key findings were that the absolute credibility of newspaper coverage of SARS-related news was shown to be highest in comparison to that of other media; also, media use was significantly related to respondents' perception of absolute credibility of newspapers, radio, magazines, and the Internet regarding SARS-related news, but it was not significantly related to respondents' perception of absolute credibility of TV. The findings suggest that future studies exploring individuals' perception of media credibility in the context of public health crises and people's health information behaviors should take into account media dependence or knowledge.
Communicate Heritage: Political and Cultural Similarities between Chinese Marxism and Confucian Tradition
Author(s): Shaorong Huang
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Foreign ideas and doctrines were constantly rejected unless they were assimilated with Chinese culture and tradition. When Marxism was introduced to China in early 20th century, it immediately underwent a process of sinification, because Chinese people could accept only a Chinese Marxism. With more than 80 years of effort in integrating Marxist theory with Chinese historical heritage and cultural tradition, Chinese Marxism has become the nation's doctrine more Chinese than foreign. It shares many similarities with Confucian tradition including human centrality and human self-cultivation, unity of theory and practice, and emphasis on humane government. Facing new problems such as mounting income disparities, unemployment and corruption, Communist China's fourth generation leadership headed by Hu Jintao is likely to follow the footsteps of its predecessors to communicate the nation's cultural heritage and find a guidance both useful and Chinese.
The Rise, Development and Trends of the Chinese Communication Studies
Author(s): Guo-Liang Zhang
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This paper traces the inception and development of the mainland Chinese communication studies, including the causes of its rise, its characteristics, its course and trends of development, and the insights it can thus give us. After that, the author concludes, confined by historical conditions, the Chinese communication studies has been deficient in its mono-disciplinarity, which hinders its significant growth in a time that demands such growth urgently; the development of the Chinese communication studies can follow two pathways, namely one that advocates localized research from the traditional perspective and one that in favor of building a communication studies in China using theories and research methods widely accepted in the world. The latter pathway can be called as \"grap\" perspective. Though have been criticized and misunderstood, the \"grap\" perspective has been gaining more grounds and its advantages are emerging. The author suggests the top priority for us now is to strengthen theoretical and methodological foundation in the Chinese communication studies by consolidating multidisciplinary research. The author admonishes communication researchers' pursuit for theory building shall not be bewildered by the current hurly-burly in the Chinese communication studies field.
Studies and Development of Comparative Rhetoric in the U. S. A.: Chinese and Western rhetoric in Focus
Author(s): Xing Lu
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This paper offers an overview of studies and development in the area of comparative rhetoric in the United States. Over the past few decades, studies of comparative rhetoric have gone through four stages: the deficiency stage, the recognition/emergence stage, the native/emic stage, and the appreciation/appropriation stage. The approach to the studies of comparative rhetoric has been shifted from a Eurocentric lens to an embracement of multicultural rhetorical perspectives. However, rhetorical scholars still face challenges of translation of primary materials and cultural understanding for a more nuanced and in-depth understanding of cross-cultural rhetoric.
Roll Tide Roll: Keep up the Tradition and Culture ---An interview with Dr. E. Culpepper Clark, Dean, College of Communication & Information Sciences, University of Alabama
Author(s): Shuhua Zhou and Jie Xu
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This interview was conducted via e-mail with Dr. Cully Clark in the summer of 2004. This lapse of time necessitates some updates. Dr. Jennings Bryant is now Associate Dean for Graduate Studies of the College. Dr. William Evans replaced him as Director of the Institute for Communication and Information Research. The Center for Creative Media is evolving but a similar entity is in the horizon.
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