Issue Vol. 8, No. 2 / April 2012

The Impact of New Media on Intercultural Communication in Global Context
Author(s): Guo-Ming Chen
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The rapid development of new media has been the main force accelerating the trend of globalization in human society in recent decades. New media has brought human interaction and society to a highly interconnected and complex level, but at the same time challenges the very existence of intercultural communication in its traditional sense. It is under this circumstance that we see more and more scholars becoming involved in the investigation of the relationship between new media and intercultural communication. Emerging topical areas in this line of research mainly include three categories: (1) the impact of national/ethnic culture on the development of new media, (2) the impact of new media on cultural/social identity, and (3) the impact of new media (especially social media) on different aspects of intercultural communication (e.g., intercultural relationships, intercultural adaptation, and intercultural conflict). This paper discusses this trend of research on the relationship between new media and intercultural communication. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 1-10]
Communication Competence: A Korean Perspective
Author(s): June Ock Yum
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In Korea, appropriate communication is important especially with its elaborate honorific language system that accommodates an intricately interconnected hierarchical social structure. From a Korean perspective, harmony is a crucial dimension of communication competence. Communication is not always a means to achieve a personal goal but oftentimes an end in itself. Harmonious interpersonal communication and relationships are part of the ongoing process of being. Therefore, social constructs that are designed to maintain harmony constitute Korean communication competence. Five major such constructs are discussed in this article: (1) empathy, (2) sensitivity, (3) indirectness, (4) being reserved, and (5) transcendality. In the Western context, the cognitive aspect of empathy is considered as the most important characteristic of empathic communication. In the Korean context, however, affective dimensions such as emotional contagion and emotional concerns are considered as more important than the cognitive aspect of perspective taking. Most literature on communication competence is at the level of interpersonal communication. The study of communication competence should be expanded beyond the individual level to groups and society as a whole. Whether or not a group maintains and expands its social network, or a society promotes interconnection among its members, would be an indicator of the communication competence of the group or the society. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 11-17]
Perceptions of News Value: A Comparative Research between China and the United States
Author(s): Qin Guo
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This article presented the result of a comparative research on the Top-ten International News Reports voted in China and the United States between 2006 and 2010. The research was aimed at exploring the convergences and divergences of Chinese and Western news value perceptions. It is primarily concerned with two questions: What are the factors determining news worthiness in China and the United States? What are the similarities and differences between Chinese and Western journalism theories and practices? Chinese and Western news value theories were reviewed to establish the theoretical framework for content analysis and discussion of the analysis result. The research found that despite ideological and cultural distinctions, there were considerable similarities between Chinese and Western news value theories. However, significant disparities were found in practices of news selection and construction in China and the United States. The research results demonstrated the dual aspects of the globalising media system: the increasing interconnection and homogenisation between national media systems, and the reinforced segmentation and localities of the world information communication. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 26-35]
In State Media the Chinese Trust? Findings from a National Survey
Author(s): Jie Xu
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The current study conducts a series of data analyses of the China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2008, the latest national survey of urban and rural households investigating the social structure and quality of life in China. Using a nationally representative sample, the study focuses on trust that Chinese users ascribe to their state media, its comparative strength and its relationships with trust in other information sources such as government and experts. Various correlates of trust in state media are explored from several theoretical frameworks of trust. Overall, this study demonstrates a great amount of trust the Chinese people place in state media, which varies by certain personal characteristics (i.e., residing area) and media exposure frequencies (i.e., Internet use). Moreover, people’s trust in other sources, particularly the government, accounts for the vast majority of variances of their trust in state media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 36-45]
The Rise of China and Global Internet Governance
Author(s): Yangyue Liu
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Since the 1980s, the exponential increase in usage of new information and communication technologies has necessitated the worldwide governance of Internet through globally consensual institutions and regulations. Meanwhile, the past decade wit nessed China’s rise not only as an economic and political giant, but also as a great power in Internet infrastructure and technology that bred the biggest population of netizens and established the most sophisticated Internet control system. Previous studies always focused on the impacts of Internet development on domestic politics (democratization) and diplomatic affairs (public diplomacy) in China. This paper explores the other side of this issue: how did China’s economic, political and technological rise affect the development of global governance on the Internet? More specifically, this paper will analyze the impacts of China’s rise on three aspects of Internet governance: technical standardization, resource allocation, and Internet-related public policy. Several empirical cases, such as the internationalization of WAPI standard and China’s struggle over Chinese language domain names, are investigated. It argues that China has exerted, and is exerting, challenging or even overturning influences upon the US-centric regime in aspects of technologies, institutions as well as social norms. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 46-55]
A Semiotic Analysis of China National Publicity Film: From the Perspective of the DIMT Model
Author(s): Qing Huang
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The DIMT Model looks into the relationship among; "Discourse", "Image", "Meaning" and "Tao". When applied to a China national publicity film, the DIMT Model can be illustrated when analyzing the following; linguistic signs (Discourse) and typical scenes (Image), jointly represent the connotations of China’s national image (Meaning). "Tao" signifies the universal values proposed by ancient Chinese wisdoms and the essence of modern Western thoughts. Based on the DIMT Model, a semiotic analysis will be adopted to investigate how linguistic signs and images represent the meanings of China's national image, and whether they express the real universal values effectively. According to the findings, the first part of the China national publicity film expresses the universal values of peace and development, yet lacks the idea of equality; the second part generally combines Chinese National characteristics with modern Western thoughts, but puts too much emphasis on the latter than the former. In order to realize "Tao", this paper suggests the publicity film achieves a balance between national characteristics and modern thoughts, and tries to integrate wisdoms embedded in the Chinese tradition with universal values. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 56-62]
Understanding the Changing Chinese Media: Through the Lens of Crises
Author(s): Aimei Yang
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Guided by the framing theory, this study compared the Chinese media’s coverage of SARS in 2003 and the Sichuan Earthquake in 2008. Findings suggest party media and market-oriented media demonstrated considerable differences in their crisis coverage. More diverse discourses are tolerated in the Chinese media and political system. Both party media and market-oriented media showed signs of improvement in terms of framing strategies and news source usage. Discussion and implications were also presented. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 63-75]
New Media and Civic Engagement in China: The Case of the Xiamen PX Event
Author(s): Guosong Shao, Jiayin Lu, and Jiani Wu,
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Through a case study, this paper explores the role of new media in improving Chinese civic engagement. It first presents two major problems facing Chinese civic engagement: civic disengagement and civic disorder. These two problems seem mutually contradictory but factually share the same roots. This paper analyzes their shared roots in terms of information flow, participation channels, and participation motivations. Then the potential of new media in addressing the problems is discussed, and the role of new media in improving Chinese civic engagement is illustrated in the case study on the Xiamen PX Event. A brief summary and discussion is finally offered. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 76-82]
Communicating Fairly: An Interview with Prof. Lynn H. Turner
Author(s): Tong Yu
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This interview was conducted via e-mail with Prof. Lynn Turner, current president of the National Communication Association (NCA). Prof. Turner is a well-known scholar in interpersonal, gender and family communication. In this interview, Prof. Turner shares some of her experience and offers suggestions to young scholars in communication. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 83-85]
Special Section: Issues in Communication and Instruction
Guest Editor: Qin Zhang, Fairfield University
Cultures Matter: An Alternative Model of Teaching Evaluations
Author(s): Changfu Chang, Mei Zhang, and Zhuojun Joyce Chen
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The increasing multicultural diversity and changing cultural landscape in U.S. higher education call for a paradigmatic shift in the understanding and practice of teaching evaluation with regard to instructional and intercultural communication. This article examines the current evaluation instruments that privilege Western cultural values and tradition, re-conceptualizes the major definitions in the mainstream models, and presents the rationale and suggestions for developing an “intercultural instrument.” Incorporating global perspectives in assessment of teaching and learning is a vital component in the education of global citizens in a multicultural society. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 86-93]
Personalized Education and Student Motives for Communicating with Instructors: An Examination of Chinese and American Classrooms
Author(s): Alan K. Goodboy, Scott A. Myers, and San Bolkan
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The purpose of this study was twofold: to (a) investigate the relationships between Chinese and U.S. students’ perceptions of a personalized education and their motives for communicating with an instructor and (b) examine cultural differences between these perceptions. Participants were 435 undergraduate students enrolled in a university from mainland China or the U.S who completed a questionnaire. Results indicated that across both cultures, personalized education was related positively to the relational, functional, participatory, and sycophancy motives. However, U.S. students reported more of a personalized education whereas Chinese students reported communicating more for the relational, excuse-making, and sycophancy motives. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 94-100]
Teacher Burnout and Turnover Intention in a Chinese Sample: The Mediating Role of Teacher Satisfaction
Author(s): Jibiao Zhang and Qin Zhang
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Interviewee ’s Biosketch:
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in burnout and turnover intention between Chinese college instructors and pre-college teachers, the relationship of teacher burnout with turnover intention, and the mediating role of teacher satisfaction in the effects of teacher burnout on turnover intention. Three major findings are reported: (a) Chinese pre-college teachers report a higher level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization than college instructors, but there are no significant differences in reduced accomplishments; (b) there is a positive correlation between teacher burnout and turnover intention; and (c) teacher satisfaction mediates the effects of teacher burnout on turnover intention. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 101-106]
Collaborative Learning as a Pedagogical Tool to Develope Intercultural Competence in a Multicultural Class
Author(s): Hongling Zhang
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This study represents an empirical study of collaborative learning as a pedagogical tool to develop intercultural competence in a multicultural class. Using two collaborative projects, the study testifies the value of using collaborative learning method to develop intercultural competence in a multicultural class from the perspectives of objectives, grouping, procedure, and results. The results indicate that the use of collaborative learning method in a multicultural class is effective for the development of learners' intercultural competence. [China Media Research. 2012; 8(2): 107-111]
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