China Media Research - Current Issue

CMR 13(1)

Issue Vol. 13, No. 1 / January 2017


The State of News: Production, Consumption, and Transformation in the Era of Digital Media

Author(s): Shuhua Zhou

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[Shuhua Zhou. The State of News: Production, Consumption, and Transformation in the Era of Digital Media. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 1-2]. 1

Are Online Versions of Newspapers Inferior Goods or Public Goods? Empirical Evidence from U.S. National and Local Markets

Author(s): Louisa Ha & Xiaoqun Zhang

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This study used a national representative sample in 2010 and a local market general population and college students sample in 2012 in the United States to examine the relationship between online and print newspaper readership and explore whether online newspapers are inferior goods. In addition, the attributes of both online and print newspapers were compared to further test if online newspapers are inferior to print newspapers in the local market. Both sets of data did not support the inferior good hypothesis, contradicting the findings of earlier research. The findings support the proposition of online newspapers as public goods. We also introduced the concept of parity news readers who are content with only limited access to online newspaper content. Newspaper executives are recommended to set different expectations for their print products and online including mobile version of their products to succeed in the digital era. [Louisa Ha & Xiaoqun Zhang. Are Online Versions of Newspapers Inferior Goods or Public Goods? Empirical Evidence from U.S. National and Local Markets. China Media Research 2017; 11(1): 3-19]. 2

The Social Economic Background and Working Conditions of Taiwan Journalists A Comparative Study of 1994, 2004 and 2014

Author(s): Ven-hwei Lo, Huei-Ling Liu, Ji Pan

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Three national surveys of working journalists were conducted in 1994, 2004 and 2014 to investigate their basic characteristics, education and training, and working conditions. Using multistage cluster sampling, the total completed sample sizes for the three surveys were 1,015 for 1994, 1,182 for 2004, and 1,505 for 2014. The results of the study revealed that journalists in Taiwan were better educated, more satisfied with their jobs, and more likely to be female in 2014 than in 1994 and 2004. The surveys also revealed that while Taiwanese journalists in 2014 tended to have less job autonomy, they were also less likely to stay with the same news organization the next five years. The comparative study provides insight on the shifts in basic characteristics, education and training, working conditions, and employment aspiration of working journalists over three transformative decades for Taiwan’s media and political environment. [Ven-hwei Lo, Huei-Ling Liu, Ji Pan. The Social Economic Background and Working Conditions of Taiwan Journalists A Comparative Study of 1994, 2004 and 2014. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 20-28]. 3

To Trust or Not to Trust: Characteristic-based and Process-Based Trust

Author(s): Hongzhong Zhang, Xueying Zhang & Shuhua Zhou

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This study first explicates the concept of trust, beginning with the psychological root of trust and its implications before identifying three types of trust: characteristic-based trust, process-based trust, and institutional-based trust. Accordingly, we investigate two of these dimensional trusts to allow us to build profiles of media users who trust or distrust different media. In particular, process-based trust was investigated by using different measures of “media use.” A survey was conducted on a random sample of the general population in the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen. Results indicated that TV was still the most trusted medium, and media use frequency is a strong predictor of trust. Implications are discussed. [Hongzhong Zhang, Xueying Zhang & Shuhua Zhou. To Trust or Not to Trust: Characteristic-based and Process-Based Trust. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 29- 41]. 4

Role Depictions of Women and Men in CCTV News Content

Author(s): Robert McKenzie & Kelly Lynch McKenzie

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China continues to rank low in gender equality, despite goals of the Communist Party to close the gap. This study analyzes the Chinese government's CCTV News - which is aimed at a foreign, English-speaking audience - to determine if women and men are being depicted equally. The study combines Social Role theory with Rhetorical Criticism to develop a content analysis methodology for revealing how the audience is likely to interpret the coverage of women and men in terms of gender equality. Three variables are assessed: Lower Status versus Higher Status, Leadership Positions versus Non-Leadership Positions, and Traditional Traits versus Emerging Traits. Though the study finds some gender equality across the variables, mostly the findings reveal pronounced gender inequality in CCTV News. Implications are suggested for how the audience - as a result of watching CCTV News - will be influenced to engage with Chinese people in international commerce and diplomacy. [Robert McKenzie & Kelly Lynch McKenzie. Role Depictions of Women and Men in CCTV News Content. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 42-51]. 5

Testing Television Advertising and News Crawls with Competing Appeals: How Does an Aversive Crawl affect an Appetitive Commercial?

Author(s): Thomas Meade, Shuhua Zhou

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This paper employed self-report and the psychophysiological measures of facial EMG at the corrugator and zygomatic muscles to test how running a news crawl with a competing appeal under a television commercial affects feelings toward a brand. News crawls with stories employing either an appetitive appeal or an aversive appeal were run under a television commercial employing the opposite appeal in order to test how a competing appeal may affect the image of a brand. This study found that there were no differences between conditions for memory or physiological activity. However, participants reported a higher likelihood to continue watching a station if a news crawl were playing during commercials. This suggests that running a news crawl may be beneficial to advertisers. [Thomas Meade, Shuhua Zhou. Testing Television Advertising and News Crawls with Competing Appeals: How Does an Aversive Crawl affect an Appetitive Commercial?. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 52-62]. 6

The Chinese Female Leadership Styles from the Perspectives of Trait and Transformational Theories

Author(s): Chin-Chung Chao

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The present study aims to explore the leadership styles and traits of prominent Chinese female leaders from the trait and transformational theoretical lenses. Through a textual analysis of eight Chinese female leaders included in the 100 most powerful woman in the world ranking by Forbes in 2015, the findings indicate a common use of the transformational leadership style by the Chinese female leaders. This research also reveals that it is important for Chinese female leaders to be visionary, humble, determined, and risk-taking. Moreover, the Chinese female leaders tend to use their successes in leadership to inspire and empower other women in elite leadership roles. The findings of the study help to understand female leadership styles, while also contributing to the knowledge of Chinese leadership. [Chin-Chung Chao. The Chinese Female Leadership Styles from the Perspectives of Trait and Transformational Theories. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 63-73]. 7

Rhetorical Construction of the Ideal Chinese Leader in President Xi Jinping's Overseas Speeches

Author(s): Xing Lu

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During the years of 2014 and 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping conducted state visits to four western nations: France, Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom. In each of these visits, Xi delivered a speech that addressed the relationship between China and each respective country, outlining China’s economic plan for its future development and calling for peace and cooperation. This paper focuses particularly on the rhetorical construction of the Chinese supreme leader through rhetorical analyses of these speeches. Although his speeches speak of international relations, I argue that Xi’s rhetoric first and foremost constructs himself as China’s most ideal leader. Specifically, four rhetorical features in his speeches are identified and analyzed alongside Chinese expectations for ideal leaders. These expectations are: (1) presenting himself as well-learned and culturally refined; (2) presenting himself as a benevolent ruler through the slogan of the “Chinese dream”; (3) evoking nationalism for the Chinese and signaling cooperation with Western countries; and (4) having a sense of history and expressing gratitude. While the speeches demonstrate China’s desire to be recognized as an equal partner among major Western nations overseas, they mainly serve to legitimize Xi’s rule as a capable leader for the Chinese people at home. [Xing Lu. Rhetorical Construction of the Ideal Chinese Leader in President Xi Jinping's Overseas Speeches. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 74-82]. 8

Implementing Entertainment-Education through TV Talk Shows in China: A Study of The Jin Xing Show

Author(s): Tao Fu & William A. Babcock

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Drawing upon Bandura’s social learning theory, entertainment-education (E-E) aims to bring changes to the audience’s attitudes, awareness, and behavior by attaining educational goals in the form of entertainment. After examining The Jin Xing Show, the researchers argue E-E in the form of TV talk shows could be a good avenue for disseminating messages regarding relationships, children’s education, and lifestyles, given China’s intensive censorship, political system and social transformation. The researchers found three strategies used in the Show: providing social modeling, building parasocial relations, and promoting self and collective efficacy. By using these strategies, E-E may help promote social advancement in a more acceptable, less authoritative way in China. [Tao Fu & William A. Babcock. Implementing Entertainment-Education through TV Talk Shows in China: A Study of The Jin Xing Show. China Media Research 2017; 11(1): 83-94]. 9

Sourcing InternationalNews: A Comparison of Five Western Countries’ Newspapers

Author(s): Guofeng Wang

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This study approaches news sources in western newspapers by comparing their use in the US, UK, Australia, France and Germany’s coverage on the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands dispute from 2011 to 2013. The qualitative analysis of these sources reveals more similarities than differences concerning the balanced sources from disputing countries (China and Japan), news patterns, the salience of the U.S.sources and the dominance of elite sources, which may be reflective of the decisive role of the norm of journalism and their shared democratic values. The news frame analysis of the news coverage reveals news sources cannot determine news frame and its final form though they do influence the news. [Guofeng Wang. Sourcing International News: A Comparison of Five Western Countries’ Newspapers. China Media Research 2017; 13(1): 95-106]. 10


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